By focusing on the reign of Elizabeth, we can better understand the ideas, individuals, and developments which created modern Britain.
Course Purpose A research seminar is designed to give students the opportunity to "practice" history; i.e., to conduct original research using primary sources, to engage in historiographical debate, to present arguments in oral and written contexts, and to revise work in response to external criticism.
So the fishermen were kept in employment by all this fish eating.
Generally only freemen of London were allowed to sell in the markets.
But ‘fish’ included veal, game and poultry, and if you really couldn’t do without beef you could buy a ‘flesh-eater’s licence’, or get round the rules in other ways.
In the words of an Act of 1563, fish days were ‘for the better maintenance and increase of the Navy…and not for any superstition…(nor) for the saving of the soul of man’ – as they had been in the previous reign.
In the 1588 Armada crisis, only 34 ships out of the total English fleet of 226 belonged to the Queen.
Only about 10% of the population lived past the age of 60 during this era, and infant and child mortality was extremely high.
The creation of an English Protestant Church in the sixteenth century had tremendous implications for national and international politics.
The fine arts flourished as never before--it was the age of William Shakespeare, William Byrd, Edmund Spenser, and Nicholas Hilliard.
Sonnet 127 by William Shakespeare Were a latter-day sojourner to suddenly stroll the streets of Elizabethan London, not every experience would be a pleasant one.
Expect, for instance, to encounter the intense stench of refuse thrown directly onto and rotting in the streets, as well as the overwhelming odor of untreated sewage flowing in open culverts.