The origin of the manuscript, describing its creation and addressing the questions where, when, who, how, how long etc. The history of the manuscript, describing its whereabouts and who owned it until present The history of the research and analysis of the MS This page addresses the first part, the origin or creation of the manuscript. It will first address the process of creating the MS, and the time frame when this probably took place, followed by a discussion about the possible place where this happened, and the possible author s. No attempt is made to identify sources used in the process. A word on terminology The production of an illustrated medieval manuscript typically involved several different people. Several other people would have been more involved with the materials parchment maker, book binder and are not considered here. On this page, I am not referring to people but to ‘roles’, and leave open all possibilities, for example that several roles were performed by the same person e.
The origin of the Voynich MS
About us When Tourism becomes Culture Tourism was once an adjunct of knowledge. People travelled to satisfy their intellectual curiosity, to find out about different cultures and religions and visit new, little known territories. The program and customer service you have in place is exceptional. Bernice Firstly, let me say how much Brian and I enjoyed our tour with Vinarium. Everyone we met through Vinarium were a delight and made us feel welcome and special.
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The town is situated at the point where the flat Veneto plains reach the hills leading up to the Alps; it takes its name from the nearby Monte Grappa. The four things for which Bassano del Grappa is best known are its covered bridge over the Brenta, the strong grappa liqueur produced in the area, the military history of Monte Grappa and locally-produced ceramics. Like so many of the Veneto’s historic towns, this is a prosperous place and is studded with smart clothes and furnishings shops.
The architecture reflects Bassano’s location: The historic centre of Bassano is pretty and very compact: It is connected by direct regional trains to Padua and Venice. It would also make an unusual base for a couple of days exploring this area between the mountains and the Veneto plain. This covered wooden bridge over the broad Brenta river was designed by Andrea Palladio in to replace earlier incarnations. The use of wood helps the structure to cope with the onslaught of flooding as melted snow rushes down from the mountains.
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Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Languages Standard Italian , as a written administrative and literary language, was in existence well before the unification of Italy in the s. However, in terms of spoken language , Italians were slow to adopt the parlance of the new nation-state, identifying much more strongly with their regional dialects.
In ancient times Italy had several other names: it was called Saturnia, in honour of Saturn; Enotria, wine-producing land; Ausonia, land of the Ausonians; Hesperia, land to the west (of Greece); Tyrrhenia, etc. The name Italy, which seems to have been taken from vitulus, to signify a land abounding in cattle, was applied at first to a very limited territory.
For a comprehensive tour of Rome book the Jewish tour guides. There is no Eruv in Rome. Traces of Jewish heritage are embedded throughout the city ranging from the ruins of Roman era synagogues, to ancient catacombs, to the grandiose turn of the century Great Synagogue on the banks of the Tiber. Many Jews decided to move to Rome because it was a good trade center. After Titus destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem in 70 A. Because they predate the division into Sephardic and Ashkenaz those who went to Moorish Spain and those who went to northern or eastern Europe , the Roman Jews speak neither Landino nor Yiddish.
They have their own language that is a mixture of Hebrew and Italian, and their own culture. Of course, when the Sephardic Jews were expelled from Spain by the Catholics in the fifteenth century or when Ashkenaz Jews had to flee their homes, some went to Rome. In the Pope issued a decree that forced all Jews to live in a ghetto next to the Tiber River.
Encyclopedia Judaica: Bari, Italy
History[ edit ] The city was founded around the 7th century BC by the Umbrians Naharti, in a territory inhabited as testified by archaeological excavations of several necropolises as early as the Bronze Age. In the 3rd century BC it was conquered by the Romans and soon became an important municipium lying on the Via Flaminia. The Roman name was Interamna, meaning “in between two rivers”. During the Roman Empire the city was enriched with several buildings, including aqueducts , walls, an amphitheater , a theater , temples and bridges.
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However, no inscriptions have survived to show that the community may be traced back to the Roman period, as is the case in neighboring towns. The community in Bari evidently rose to importance somewhat later. An epitaph dating from the ninth century preserves the memory of Eliah ben Moses “strategos” and a stele of uncertain date commemorates Moses ben Eliah, devoted teacher of the law and poet, compared to the biblical Moses. The legend at least indicates that Bari was known as a center of talmudic learning.
The theological teaching of the Bari schools evidently attained a wide influence: Andrea, archbishop of Bari d. The Jews of Bari underwent a number of vicissitudes. In about , the Jewish quarter was destroyed by mob violence and several Jews were killed. Between and the Jews in Bari suffered from the rival claims of the king and the archbishop on taxes levied on the Jews in the city.
There followed a century and a half of tranquility until the Jewish quarter was again attacked in A notable figure in this period is the physician David Kalonymus of Bari.
Bassano del Grappa
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See Article History Alternative Titles: The Roman Patavium, founded, according to legend , by the Trojan hero Antenor , it was first mentioned in bce, according to the Roman historian Livy , who was born there 59 bce. The town prospered greatly and, in the 11th—13th century, was a leading Italian commune. The poet Dante lived there, and St. Anthony of Padua is buried there. It was governed by the Carrara family from to , when it passed to Venice, which held it until Under Austrian dominion from to , it was active in the Risorgimento movement for Italian independence ; a rising took place there in February The cathedral rebuilt has a Romanesque baptistery.
The Basilica of San Antonio — contains the tomb of the saint and has statues and reliefs by Donatello on the high altar. Other notable secular landmarks include the Ragione Palazzo —19; rebuilt ; the Capitano Palazzo , now the university library; and the 16th—17th-century Bo Palazzo, which forms the nucleus of the university. Founded in , the university is the oldest in Italy after Bologna. The civic museum has a fine art gallery as well as historical and archaeological exhibits, libraries, archives, and collections of sculpture and coins.
The botanical garden of Pisa was established slightly earlier but changed locations twice since its opening, thus making Padua the oldest botanical garden in its original location in all of Europe.
The origin of the Voynich MS
Churches[ edit ] Some of the main historical churches: Cathedral of Vicenza church of Santa Maria Annunciata , dating from early in the 11th century, and restored in the 13th, 16th, 19th and after the ruinous destruction of World War II , possesses a number of paintings and sculptures, nearly all of them by Vicentine artists; the dome and north side door were designed by Andrea Palladio. The bell tower was designed by Antonio Piovene.
The basilica commemorates two apparitions of Our Lady to Vincenza Pasini, a pious woman who lived in a village in the province, and the liberation of the city from a terrible plague.
From the Fiumicino FCO airport a driver to Rome will cost you approximately 50 euro, train tickets are approximately euro per person. For a comprehensive tour of Rome book the Jewish tour guides.
Padua is home to an ancient university, and parts of the town centre have a very studenty feel to them: Successful modern business exists alongside unspoilt historical sights, and there’s lots for the visitor to do. There are some troubled housing areas in the outskirts, but these don’t impinge on the tourist’s experience. Padua’s nearest equivalent in Britain would probably be Oxford, and while the Italian town may lack punting undergraduates, it can match Oxford’s dangerous cyclists.
Visiting Padua Padua’s biggest tourist attraction is the Scrovegni Chapel Cappella degli Scrovegni , with its priceless frescoes by Giotto. Despite the town’s many other interesting sights, this is the only place in Padua where tourism has taken over. The Basilica of St. There is a lot more to Padua than these two sights, however.
The town centre is an attractive place to explore, with many historic streets to wander. It’s always been a wealthy town, and has fine architecture dating to different eras. Giotto’s are not the only frescoes in town, and the art-lover has masses to admire in the town’s churches and art gallery.
Vicenza: Who needs Venice?
In ancient times Italy had several other names: The name Italy Gr. Italia , which seems to have been taken from vitulus, to signify a land abounding in cattle, was applied at first to a very limited territory.
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The Hotel Palladio , www. Sometimes busy with wedding parties on Saturdays; doubles from euros. The six-room Relais Santa Corona , www. Doubles from euros. The best two-star hotel — and the oldest, dating from — is room Due Mori , www. Standard rooms are 80 euros; superior ones, with queen-size beds, air conditioning and internet, are euros; breakfast is 5 euros. Spend the morning in The Teatro Olimpico www.